19 Desember 2010

Sejarah Pewarta Warga (History of Citizen Journalism)

Sejarah Pewarta Warga (History of Citizen Journalism) sangatlah panjang. Bermula dari ide pemikiran bahwa warga biasa pun bisa melakukan kegiatan jurnalis dalam kesehariannya. Perbedaannya adalah wadah penyampaian atau penyebaran berita dan informasi saja. Berbagai pendapat pun keluar dari pakar-pakar komunikasi dan jurnalis.

Kali ini aku mosting tentang Sejarah Pewarta Warga (History of Citizen Journalism), cuma aku ga sempet terjemahinnya dari Wikipedia.

So... tolong terjemahin ya...

Dari Wikipedia

Initially, discussions of public journalism focused on promoting journalism that was "for the people" by changing the way professional reporters did their work. According to Leonard Witt, however, early public journalism efforts were, "often part of 'special projects' that were expensive, time-consuming and episodic. Too often these projects dealt with an issue and moved on. Professional journalists were driving the discussion. They would say, "Let's do a story on welfare-to-work (or the environment, or traffic problems, or the economy)," and then they would recruit a cross-section of citizens and chronicle their points of view. Since not all reporters and editors bought into this form of public journalism, and some outright opposed it, reaching out to the people from the newsroom was never an easy task." By 2003, in fact, the movement seemed to be petering out, with the Pew Center for Civic Journalism closing its doors.

With today’s technology the citizen journalist movement has found new life as the average person can capture news and distribute it globally. As Yochai Benkler has noted, “the capacity to make meaning – to encode and decode humanly meaningful statements – and the capacity to communicate one’s meaning around the world, are held by, or readily available to, at least many hundreds of millions of users around the globe.” Professor Mary-Rose Papandrea, a constitutional law professor at Boston College, notes in her article, Citizen Journalism and the Reporter’s Privilege, that:

In many ways, the definition of journalist has now come full circle. When the First Amendment was adopted, “freedom of the press” referred quite literally to the freedom to publish using a printing press, rather than the freedom of organized entities engaged in the publishing business. The printers of 1775 did not exclusively publish newspapers; instead, in order to survive financially they dedicated most of their efforts printing materials for paying clients. The newspapers and pamphlets of the American Revolutionary era were predominantly partisan and became even more so through the turn of the century. They engaged in little newsgathering and instead were predominantly vehicles for opinion.

The passage of the term “journalism” into common usage in the 1830s occurred at roughly the same time that newspapers, using highspeed rotary steam presses, began mass circulation throughout the eastern United States. Using the printing press, newspapers could distribute exact copies to large numbers of readers at a low incremental cost. In addition, the rapidly increasing demand for advertising for brand- name products fueled the creation of publications subsidized in large part by advertising revenue. It was not until the late nineteenth century that the concept of the “press” morphed into a description of individuals and companies engaged in an often competitive commercial media enterprise.


Birth of Blogs and the Indymedia Movement

In 1999, activists in Seattle created a response to the WTO meeting being held there. These activists understood the only way they could get into the corporate media was by blocking the streets. And then, the scant 60 seconds of coverage would show them being carted off by the police, but without any context to explain why they were protesting. They knew they had to create an alternative media model. Since then, the Indymedia movement has experienced exponential growth, and IMCs have been created in over 200 cities all over the world.
NowPublic Co-founder Michael Tippett

Simultaneously, journalism that was "by the people" began to flourish, enabled in part by emerging internet and networking technologies, such as weblogs, chat rooms, message boards, wikis and mobile computing. A relatively new development is the use of convergent polls, allowing editorials and opinions to be submitted and voted on. Overtime, the poll converges on the most broadly accepted editorials and opinions. In South Korea, OhmyNews became popular and commercially successful with the motto, "Every Citizen is a Reporter." Founded by Oh Yeon-ho on February 22, 2000, it has a staff of some 40-plus traditional reporters and editors who write about 20% of its content, with the rest coming from other freelance contributors who are mostly ordinary citizens. OhmyNews now has an estimated 50,000 contributors, and has been credited with transforming South Korea's conservative political environment.

In 2001, ThemeParkInsider.com became the first online publication to win a major journalism award for a feature that was reported and written entirely by readers, earning an Online Journalism Award from the Online News Association and Columbia Graduate School of Journalism for its "Accident Watch" section, where readers tracked injury accidents at theme parks and shared accident prevention tips.

During the 2004 U.S. presidential election, both the Democratic and Republican parties issued press credentials to citizen bloggers covering the convention, marking a new level of influence and credibility for nontraditional journalists. Some bloggers[who?] also began watchdogging the work of conventional journalists, monitoring their work for biases and inaccuracy.

A recent trend in citizen journalism has been the emergence of what blogger Jeff Jarvis terms hyperlocal journalism, as online news sites invite contributions from local residents of their subscription areas, who often report on topics that conventional newspapers tend to ignore. "We are the traditional journalism model turned upside down," explains Mary Lou Fulton, the publisher of the Northwest Voice in Bakersfield, California. "Instead of being the gatekeeper, telling people that what's important to them 'isn't news,' we're just opening up the gates and letting people come on in. We are a better community newspaper for having thousands of readers who serve as the eyes and ears for the Voice, rather than having everything filtered through the views of a small group of reporters and editors."


Demikian postingan Sejarah Pewarta Warga (History of Citizen Journalism) yang ga sempet diterjemahin.

Jiahahahahahahaha.........



14 komentar:

  1. kamusnye lupa bawa Pak guru hehhe...seorang blogger juga jurnalis..jurnalis dunia maya

    BalasHapus
  2. (Maaf) izin mengamankan PERTAMAX dulu. Boleh, kan?!
    Meski buka translator dulu, ki...

    BalasHapus
  3. gadget sekarang memang sangat mendukung CItizen Journalism, bisa ngirim berita dari mana=mana

    maaf bang jarang berkunjung akhir-akhir ini

    BalasHapus
  4. gara2 iseng jadi suatu gelar ya :D

    BalasHapus
  5. semoga blog juga bisa menjadi kontrol sosial

    BalasHapus
  6. Kalo istilah Citizen Journalism diartikan sebagai Pewarta Warga malah jadi asing ya.. tapi enggak tahu juga deh he he..

    BalasHapus
  7. jadi tahu nih bang meskipun tidak paham, ha ha ha

    BalasHapus
  8. sek sek sek tak buka alfalink dulu...hehehe...

    BalasHapus
  9. aduh bahasa inggris -_-" hihih

    semoga blog bisa eksis terus dan jadi kontrol sosial deh

    BalasHapus
  10. mas atta juga jurnalis dumay xixixi

    BalasHapus
  11. Ternyata Pewarta Warga punya sejarah yang panjaaang...

    BalasHapus
  12. hehehe,perlu robot tukang santet,eh....translate ni mas :D

    BalasHapus
  13. belum bisa nerjemahin dengan baik, tapi udah ada bayangan kalau seorang warga biasa bisa jadi seorang jurnalis namun wadahnya berbeda (termasuk pandi), ngak melulu jebolan univ. jur. jurnalis.. tengkyu bang atta atas informasinya..

    BalasHapus

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