Indonesian Intangible Cultural Heritage - UNESCO

Abis muter-muter keliling kampung mencari Budaya Indonesia yang terdaftar di UNESCO membuatku terdampar di web UNESCO (emang udah tujuan semula kok, cuma sempet nyasar ke web Jepang yang ngurus budaya dan berhubungan dengan UNESCO juga seh). Di dalam database, baru terdapat 2 budaya Indonesia yang ditampilkan. Untuk Budaya Angklung masih dalam proses penilaian. Budaya dunia dibagi atas 2 bidang yaitu tangible cultiral heritage (warisan budaya kebendaan) dan intangible cultural heritage (warisan budaya non-kebendaan).

Untuk budaya Indonesia non-kebendaan yang telah terdaftar di UNESCO, yaitu :
Proclamation 2003: "The Wayang Puppet Theatre"

Picture : The Wayang Puppet Theatre
©”Sena wangi” national secretariat
Renowned for its elaborate puppets and complex musical styles, this ancient form of storytelling originated on the Indonesian island of Java. For ten centuries wayang flourished at the royal courts of Java and Bali as well as in rural areas. Wayang has spread to other islands (Lombok, Madura, Sumatra and Borneo) where various local performance styles and musical accompaniments have developed.

While these carefully handcrafted puppets vary in size, shape and style, two principal types prevail: the three-dimensional wooden puppet (wayang klitik or gol├Ęk) and the flat leather shadow puppet (wayang kulit) projected in front of a screen lit from behind. Both types are characterized by costumes, facial features and articulated body parts. The master puppeteer (dalang) manipulates the swivelling arms by means of slender sticks attached to the puppets. Singers and musicians play complex melodies on bronze instruments and gamelan drums. In the past, puppeteers were regarded as cultivated literary experts who transmitted moral and aesthetic values through their art. The words and actions of comic characters representing the “ordinary person” have provided a vehicle for criticizing sensitive social and political issues, and it is believed that this special role may have contributed to wayang’s survival over the centuries. Wayang stories borrow characters from indigenous myths, Indian epics and heroes from Persian tales. The repertory and performance techniques were transmitted orally within the families of puppeteers, musicians and puppet-makers. Master puppeteers are expected to memorize a vast repertory of stories and to recite ancient narrative passages and poetic songs in a witty and creative manner.

The Wayang Puppet Theatre still enjoys great popularity. However, to compete successfully with modern forms of pastimes such as video, television or karaoke, performers tend to accentuate comic scenes at the expense of the story line and to replace musical accompaniment with pop tunes, leading to the loss of some characteristic features.

Proclamation 2005: "The Indonesian Kris"

Picture : The Indonesian Kris
©Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Indonesia
The kris or keris is a distinctive, asymmetrical dagger from Indonesia. Both weapon and spiritual object, the kris is considered to possess magical powers. The earliest known kris go back to the tenth century and most probably spread from the island of Java throughout South-East Asia.

Kris blades are usually narrow with a wide, asymmetrical base. The sheath is often made from wood, though examples from ivory, even gold, abound. A kris’ aesthetic value covers the dhapur (the form and design of the blade, with some 40 variants), the pamor (the pattern of metal alloy decoration on the blade, with approximately 120 variants), and tangguh referring to the age and origin of a kris. A bladesmith, or empu, makes the blade in layers of different iron ores and meteorite nickel. In high quality kris blades, the metal is folded dozens or hundreds of times and handled with the utmost precision. Empus are highly respected craftsmen with additional knowledge in literature, history and occult sciences.

Kris were worn everyday and at special ceremonies, and heirloom blades are handed down through successive generations. Both men and women wear them. A rich spirituality and mythology developed around this dagger. Kris are used for display, as talismans with magical powers, weapons, sanctified heirlooms, auxiliary equipment for court soldiers, accessories for ceremonial dress, an indicator of social status, a symbol of heroism, etc.

Over the past three decades, kris have lost some of their prominent social and spiritual meaning in society. Although active and honoured empus who produce high-quality kris in the traditional way can still be found on many islands, their number is dramatically decreasing, and it is more difficult for them to find people to whom they can transmit their skills.

Sedangkan Tangible Cultural Heritage di Indonesia sangat banyak yang telah terdaftar, yang dibedakan lagi atas Situs Budaya dan Situs Nasional serta campuran. Contohnya :
Situs Budaya / Tahun Terdaftar :
* Borobudur Temple Compounds (1991)
* Prambanan Temple Compounds (1991)
* Sangiran Early Man Site (1996)

Situs Nasional :
* Komodo National Park (1991)
* Lorentz National Park - Papua (1999)
* Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (2004)
* Ujung Kulon National Park (1991)

Mandates to the World Heritage Committee 1989 - 1995
Properties submitted on the Tentative List :
* Trowulan Ancient City (1995)
* Banten Ancient City (1995)
* Ratu Boko Temple Complex (1995)
* Maros Prehistoric Cave (1995)
* Great Mosque of Demak (1995)
* Toraja (1995)
* Yogyakarta Palace Complex (1995)
* Waruga Burial Complex (1995)
* Ngada traditional house and megalithic complex (1995)
* Penataran Hindu Temple Complex (1995)
* Sukuh Hindu Temple (1995)
* Besakih (1995)
* Belgica Fort (1995)
* Pulau Penyengat Palace Complex (1995)
* Elephant Cave (1995)
* Gunongan Historical Park (1995)
* Betung Kerihun National Park (Transborder Rainforest Heritage of Borneo) (2004)
* Bunaken National Park (2005)
* Raja Ampat Islands (2005)
* Banda Islands (2005)
* Taka Bonerate National Park (2005)
* Wakatobi National Park (2005)
* Derawan Islands (2005)
* Cultural Landscape of Bali Province (2007)

What is Intangible Cultural Heritage?
According to the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, the intangible cultural heritage (ICH) – or living heritage – is the mainspring of our cultural diversity and its maintenance a guarantee for continuing creativity.

The Convention states that the ICH is manifested, among others, in the following domains:
  • Oral traditions and expressions including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage;
  • Performing arts (such as traditional music, dance and theatre);
  • Social practices, rituals and festive events;
  • Knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe;
  • Traditional craftsmanship.
The 2003 Convention defines ICH as the practices, representations, expressions, as well as the knowledge and skills, that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognise as part of their cultural heritage.

The definition also indicates that the ICH to be safeguarded by this Convention:
  • is transmitted from generation to generation;
  • is constantly recreated by communities and groups, in response to their environment, their interaction with nature, and their history;
  • provides communities and groups with a sense of identity and continuity;
  • promotes respect for cultural diversity and human creativity;
  • is compatible with international human rights instruments;
  • complies with the requirements of mutual respect among communities, and of sustainable development.
The ICH is traditional and living at the same time. It is constantly recreated and mainly transmitted orally. It is difficult to use the term authentic in relation to ICH; some experts advise against its use in relation to living heritage (see the Yamato Declaration: English|French).

The depository of this heritage is the human mind, the human body being the main instrument for its enactment, or – literally – embodiment. The knowledge and skills are often shared within a community, and manifestations of ICH often are performed collectively.

Many elements of the ICH are endangered, due to effects of globalization, uniformization policies, and lack of means, appreciation and understanding which – taken together – may lead to the erosion of functions and values of such elements and to lack of interest among the younger generations.

The Convention speaks about communities and groups of tradition bearers, without specifying them. Time and again it was stressed by the governmental experts who prepared the draft of the Convention that such communities have an open character, that they can be dominant or non dominant, that they are not necessarily linked to specific territories and that one person can very well belong to different communities and switch communities.

The Convention introduces, by establishing the Representative List, the idea of “representativeness”. “Representative” might mean, at the same time, representative for the creativity of humanity, for the cultural heritage of States, as well as for the cultural heritage of communities who are the bearers of the traditions in question.

Sumber :
Intangible Cultural Heritage - ICH

World Heritage Convention - WHC

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